Skin – structure and diseases
Skin is the outer covering of the body. The skin is a border and adds features to protect the below situated organs from the harmful environmental impact and in addition there are a number of receptors available for contacting with the surrounding world. Under the word “skin” most people understand the thin layer that actually they see, actually the skin is a complex body organ. In its simplest structure, the skin consists of two layers – the epidermis and dermis.
Skin – epidermis
Epidermis is the outermost layer of the skin. Many skin problems are due to the cells located in this layer of the skin. At the bottom of the epidermis the layer is called germinative layer cells. These skin cells are elongated nucleus that contain nucleus and divide continuously. Emerging new skin cells push the old cells from the germinative layer, which climbing up into the epidermal skin layer accumulate inside the protein keratin, which kills the nucleus. These skin cells lose their ability to divide and form a so-called epidermis. The Epidermis layer is the outermost layer of skin, in the humans this layer consists only of dead cells with a flat shape. These skin cells are exposed to continuous impact of weather, these cells wear out and fall off. A typical example of this is loss of skin cells when we are long time exposed to sunlight, when happens the so called peeling, which is a natural defensive reaction.
Skin – dermis
Dermis lies immediately below the epidermis and consists of connective tissue fibers, blood vessels, nerves, nerve endings and roots of the hair. In connective tissue fibers epidermis intersect at different angles.
The occurrence of skin diseases are mostly due to damage or irritation of the epidermal layer.
Skin callous – callous on the skin can be developed due to physical irritation to the skin as a result of which the cells in the epidermis germinative layer begin to divide, the intensive accumulation of cells cause the skin callous.
Callouses appear mainly on the palms as a result of heavy physical labor.
Rising – These are skin diseases that affect only the foot. Rising are obtained in a similar manner, like the blisters only there is no compaction of the cells, but rather gets to a distance that is filled with liquid. Rising on the feet are a very bad problem. The reason for this are uncomfortable shoes. Especially during the summer months when your feet are sweating more and one of the shoe constantly rubbing on the skin and the response is the appearance of leg rising. If you get a blister do not rush to put stickers. Treatment of blisters also does not consist in a bubble pop. Leave to rest the feet in comfortable shoes and socks so they can reduce the negative impact of uncomfortable shoes on the feet.
Few people know but cracked heels are also a serious skin problem, and in some cases cracked heels can give pain when stepping.
Other skin problems are – moles, skin cancer, acne and others.